Microscopy: Intro to microscopes & how they work article


Sparks are caused by a buildup of charged particles that suddenly arc when they are pushed by a voltage that changes dramatically over a short distance. But sharper points, such as fork tines or the many tiny edges in aluminum foil, concentrate charge and also cause localized drops in voltage, which together create corona discharge—a spark.

The social side of science

Geology can also include the study of the solid features of any terrestrial planet or natural satellite such as Mars or the Moon. Modern geology significantly overlaps all other Earth sciences, including hydrology and the atmospheric sciences, and so is treated as one major aspect of integrated Earth system science and planetary science. In a light microscope, visible light passes through the specimen and is bent through the lens system, allowing the user to see a magnified image. A benefit of light microscopy is that it can often be performed on living cells, so it’s possible to watch cells carrying out their normal behaviors (e.g., migrating or dividing) under the microscope. Our lives are increasingly affected, for better or worse, by innovations in science; some of these innovations we rely on to present future threats. Developments in fields ranging from gene technology to energy production offer real benefits to society, but also raise wider societal questions.

A new poll examines how the US public views science and scientists.

A synapse is like a bustling port, complete with machinery for sending and receiving cargo—neurotransmitters, specialized chemicals that convey signals between neurons. All of the shipping machinery is built from proteins, the basic building blocks of cells. He attended college and graduate school at the University of Toronto, and in 1996 joined the New York University lab of Joseph LeDoux, a distinguished neuroscientist who studies how emotions influence memory. “One of the things that really seduced me about science is that it’s a system you can use to test your own ideas about how things work,” Nader says.

As Jupiter and Saturn wandered back out, their gravity latched on to asteroids that formed beyond the snow line — the boundary beyond which temperatures are low enough for ice to form — and flung them inward. About 1 percent of these ice-infused boulders, known as C-type asteroids, were dropped into the outer regions of the asteroid belt. But for every C-type asteroid relocated to the belt, at least 10 were sent careening into the region where the rocky planets were materializing. Well before the rocky planets formed, recent research suggests, ice-infused asteroids were forged beyond Jupiter and subsequently swarmed the inner solar system. These space rocks delivered water to Vesta and to Earth after being hurled at our planet by the gravity of Jupiter and Saturn.

How Citizen Scientists Rescued Crucial World War II Weather Data

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The goal is to study how large language models affect children using brain scans and interviews. Based on the results, Lee will be designing methods for fine-tuning a large language model to more safely support children’s creativity. The goal of the Paris Agreement, an international treaty, is to keep the global average temperature to “well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels” and pursue efforts “to limit the temperature increase to 1.5°C.” Temperature projections for the Arctic varied more substantially between the models than for other parts of the globe, accounting for 15% of the uncertainty in projections, despite the region only making up 4% of the global surface area.

But even if some comets have an Earth-like D/H ratio, it’s still really hard to get comets to hit our planet in the first place. “Any comet that’s going to bash into Earth has to get past this really big linebacker of Jupiter,” says planetary scientist Sean Raymond of the Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Bordeaux in France.